Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are gradually supplanting all other types of funds in the financial market. Their rampant growth makes it simpler for millions of investors to enter markets. However, their expected dominance might have effects that are yet to be explored.
It was by chance that David Card, the 2021 Nobel Prize winner, became an economist. Academic journals turned down his works, and his friends thought he had broken up the foundations of economic theory. But if a theory doesn’t fit the evidence, there must be an alternative theory.
From 2022 on, Russian retail investors will be allowed to buy foreign exchange-traded funds (ETFs). This regulatory decision tackles several objectives, from making investments more balanced to encouraging competition among asset management companies.
As cryptocurrencies and other digital financial assets gain popularity, regulators are increasingly alarmed about the potential risks to financial stability they bring. Additional steps are needed to ensure that money surrogates are not used for payments.
There has never been such expensive gas in Europe as recently: over the 12 months up to the end of November, prices increased more than 5-fold. The situation raises the question of whether this crisis is temporary or it signifies structural problems in the energy markets.
Uber and Lyft once promised to replace personal cars and do away with traffic congestion. However, some municipal authorities believe that these services have only exacerbated traffic jams. Research shows that their impact on road traffic depends on the ‘design’ of cities.
Direct quantitative restrictions, or macroprudential limits, are a limitation of the share of high-risk loans in new lending by banks. These measures help to prevent the accumulation of borrower risks and thereby reduce the risks of the financial sector.
Russians have passed through several stages in their emotional feelings during the corona crisis: fear and respite gave way to a return of tension, which is ongoing. For all the stress that an uncertain future has caused people, a certain adaptation to the pandemic can be seen.