Gravity exists not only in physics, but also in economics, and just like in physics, its laws are objective. It is far more important for small and medium-sized economies to maintain and develop economic ties with the largest economies than vice versa.
As one of the three winners of the 2022 Nobel Prize in economics, Ben Bernanke was awarded it for his research into the causes of the Great Depression. He learned and applied its lessons as chair of the US Federal Reserve when it had to combat the global financial crisis.
Many Russian firms prioritise their market position over productivity growth; low competition and high entry barriers reduce their incentives for innovation. This approach extends the life of inefficient businesses whilst undermining the sustainability of efficient ones.
One in five of Russian professionals with higher education and permanent employment are impoverished or low-income. According to the HSE, poverty among professionals, which seemed to be a thing of the past, is now returning, and the crisis may exacerbate it.
A central bank may have an information advantage enabling it to better forecast macroeconomic indicators and, hence, make decisions that are not expected by the market. This advantage may exist both in reality and solely in the form of the market’s belief in it.
With inflation expectations anchored, price spikes do not spread between market segments, and inflation returns to the target level. We have assessed that the expectations of Russian economists have been anchored since 2017, while those of households have not yet been anchored.